Michael-Type Crosslinking

Michael-type crosslinking reactions are very mild – neutral pH and ambient temperature – perfect for encapsulating living cells.

Enzymatic crosslinking

Enzymatic crosslinking is the way in which our blood clots during wound healing – cells secrete an enzyme, transglutaminase, which crosslinks fibrin, forming an insoluble protein polymer, or clot. By using this enzyme, along with the appropriate functional groups, hydrogels can be crosslinked in much the same way.